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- Citation impact II
- Evaluation based on scientific publications
- Citation Analysis as a Tool of Library Collections Evaluation | Hayati | Record and Library Journal
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In order to assess the quality and impact of journals, it is usual to employ bibliometric techniques. These authors assessed Brazilian scientific journals in the Administration field, using the impact factor and relating this index with the classification of these journals in the Qualis system of CAPES. They analyzed 21 journals and proceedings from the Brazilian Academy of Management Meeting EnANPAD edited from to , dividing the journals into three groups, according to the Qualis ranking: 'A' Old National that had already received the assessment score of 'A' for some time ; "A' Recent National the assessment score from ; 'B' National.
The authors confirmed that the citations and the impact factor are higher in the 'A' Old National group.
With regards to the other two groups, no significant difference was found in the impact factors of either. In addition, they were able to ascertain that self-citation had no particular influence on the impact factor. The authors also stated that impact factor is a viable and relevant criterion when assessing journals. This does not mean, however, that only this criterion should be used, but rather that it should be recognized as being important and used in conjunction with others assessment criteria Machado-da-Silva et al. Mugnaini and Strehl mentioned that recently the only data that gave an idea of the impact of scientific journals were those generated from the data bases contained in the Web of Science , compiled by the Institute for Scientific Information ISI.
Thus, the ISI continues to share space with other index services, since it is no longer the only mechanism used to calculate the impact of scientific production. We worked with quality indicators of processes and results, used by agencies that promote education and research in Brazil. The research work is descriptive by nature and used the survey method, adopting a quantitative approach.
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In June , it was possible to access journals, registered under their particular subject headings, although journals were registered in the system. That is to say, journals did not specify their area of knowledge. For this reason, the universe considered was composed of journals. Selecting which journals would be included in our sampling was done based on previously established criteria, characterizing an intentional sampling.
The selection criteria used were the following:. Journals from the most productive areas, according to the bibliographic production indicators of the post-graduate programs made available by CAPES, and related to the triennium of ;.
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Journals that began to circulate either in print or in electronic form in , or before 2. It should be underlined, however, that these criteria could result in only better-quality journals being selected. However, it is necessary to confirm if at least these journals, because they belong to the most productive areas of knowledge and have been in circulation for long enough to become consolidated, present the minimum standards of quality required for scientific journals. The field productivity was calculated based on the number of researchers and the number of articles produced during the triennium period.
Based on the productivity indexes, a calculation was made to establish the measure that adequately represented the central position of the distribution of the areas within their greater areas of knowledge. The areas that were above this central measure would be considered as productive.
It was ascertained that all the great areas of knowledge were shown to have a very strong positive or negative asymmetry. This means that the distribution is shown to be concentrated in values of high or low magnitude. That is, within each great area, there are many areas of low productivity or many areas of high productivity. In these cases, the average is not the best central distribution measurement according to Barbeta , p. In general, given a set of values, the average is the most adequate measurement of the central position, when it is assumed that these values have a reasonably asymmetric distribution, while the median emerges as an alternative to represent the central position in very asymmetric distributions.
The average is strongly influenced by discrepant values. Therefore, since the distribution asymmetry is strong, the median was chosen to represent the central position of the distribution, since the average is influenced by very high or very low values. The most productive areas should therefore present greater productivity than the median of their greater area. A list was then made of all the journals that belonged to the most productive areas of knowledge, which came to a total of journals.
Of these, 84 were excluded because they had been published for less than four years, which reduced the total number of journals to just After the journals were filtered according to their starting year of publication, it was seen several presented problems, such as: publication being delayed for up to one year or more, problems of access, and a non-scientific profile. The variables studied in this survey consist of a series of selected criteria considered to be relevant to ascertain the quality of a scientific journal.
Citation impact II
These criteria were identified through literature, mainly by the works of Ferreira and Trzesniak , , as well as other sources cited during the presentation of the research results. Affiliation: This refers to the number of members with no ties to the institution responsible for editing the journal. Qualification: Level of academic degree held by members of the editorial board. The following scale was used: graduation; master's degree; doctorate.
Productivity: Number of articles published by members of the editorial board during the triennium of This information was obtained by consulting their Lattes curriculums. The editorial board was considered to be productive if the average number of articles written by the members in the triennium was higher than the average number produced in the field to which the journal is connected.
Due to the variety of nomenclatures used, it was necessary to analyze if the members mentioned represented the Editorial Board or the Editorial Council. For this, the following criteria were used to identify the Editorial Board, according to Trzesniak : Inclusion of more than nine members according to the author, an editorial council generally has up to nine members ; Inclusion of members with different institutional and geographical backgrounds.
In addition to being characteristic of the board, their members do not need to act as a group and, in theory, do not have to meet regularly, unlike the editorial council Trzesniak, The affiliation of the first author of each article published in was ascertained. The number of Brazilian and foreign authors was verified for the same year.
Percentage of inedited works: It was calculated for each journal the proportion of inedited works published during Ideally, each journal should provide information about the percentage of inedited articles they publish, but this rarely occurs. Criteria for formatting and normalization: Completeness and clarity when specifying guidelines related to the formatting and normalization of the articles. Assessment procedures: Provide full and clear information regarding the assessment of manuscripts.
Dates of the assessment process: Provide clear information relating to the dates of the assessment process, and at least include the dates of submission and approval of the articles. The age of the journal; Format if printed and electronic or only electronic ; language in which the articles are published. The Publish or Perish software was used to calculate the impact of each journal.
The program retrieves and analyzes the academic citations of a particular author or journal. One of the metrics presented is the H-index. This index was proposed by Hirsch to calculate the impact of scientists. For example, a researcher with a "7" H-index value has seven articles with at least seven citations each. Braun, Glanzel and Schubert suggested that the H-index could be useful to calculate the impact of the journals.
Evaluation based on scientific publications
Firstly, because it is insensitive to an accidental excess of un-cited articles, as well as to one or several highly-cited articles. Secondly, because it combines the effect of quantity number of articles and quality citations in a fairly specific and balanced way, that should reduce the apparent overvaluation of some of the smaller revision journals. In addition, most of the journals analyzed are not indexed on the Web of Science or Scopus databases, which would therefore make if far more difficult to calculate an index to represent the impact of the selected journals.
It should be said, however, that providing the names of members of the Editorial Board is an essential criterion to indicate the quality of a journal. In addition, Trzesniak reminds that an Editorial Board is one of the guarantees of a journal's scientific credibility. This group is responsible for assisting the editor in the decision making process regarding the publication of original articles. Furthermore, as suggested by Trzesniak , p. Preparing a scientific journal requires a good deal of dedication and implies giving your time to improving the work of other researchers, in detriment to your own projects.
It is only with the involvement of a team that it is possible to do this without the editor being seriously undermined in his own career as a researcher. Thus, it may be perceived how important an Editorial Board and a well-structured team are to ensure the good management of a scientific journal and, consequently, to guarantee its quality as an instrument for information flow.
When analysing the information of Graph 1 about the Editorial Board, it may be seen that most of the members are affiliated to institutions other than to the one that edits the journal. This factor shows the quality of the journal, as stated by Trzesniak , p.
Citation Analysis as a Tool of Library Collections Evaluation | Hayati | Record and Library Journal
Similar criteria were also found in the studies of: i Krzyzanowski and Ferreira when assessing Brazilian scientific and technical journals; ii Ali, Young and Ali , which outlined a checklist of quality aspects used for financing decisions; iii Trzesniak , as one of the criteria used to assess journals in the Education area. This could mean that the members of the editorial board that were surveyed have a sufficient level of involvement in scientific and research activities, which is one of the factors that is considered necessary for members of a professional group who will be responsible for maintaining a journal's quality standard.
If the analysis had covered all of the journals, the results would show that, taken together, these have less quality than the minimum required. Graph 3 shows the percentage distribution of authors who have had articles published in the journals included in this sampling, distributed by affiliation and nationality.
The Thomson Scientific establishes as a more general criterion, the international diversity of authors whose articles are published in the journal. With respect to the nationality of the authors, it should be underlined that this assessment was carried out with the first authors only and in the year of As explained in the methodology, journals included in the sampling should necessarily be classified in their respective areas of knowledge. However, as can be seen in Graph 4 , some areas were represented with more journals than others. This difference may also be explained by other aspects, such as the publication standards of areas of knowledge.
Mueller carried out a survey to ascertain the preferred publication channels for each area of knowledge.
She collected data from the tables produced by CAPES from to , checking publications in national and foreign journals, proceedings national and foreign , books and book chapters and concluded that:. Researchers in the areas of Exact, Natural and Biological Sciences prefer to publish their work in foreign journals and very little through other channels; Researchers in Health Sciences prefer to publish in national journals, but also publish in foreign journals, rarely using other channels; Researchers in Engineering prefer to publish their work in conference papers, in a far greater number that they publish in journals; Researchers in Applied Social Sciences prefer to publish their work in national journals and books.
Therefore, it is interesting to note that the areas of Mathematical Sciences and Natural and Biological Sciences probably have the least number of journals registered at SEER, since preference is given to publishing in foreign journals. As a result, fewer journals on these subjects are published and edited in Brazil. A similar fact occurs in the areas of Engineering and Computational Sciences, which prefer to publish their work in conference papers. These findings corroborate studies undertaken by Leite, Mugnaini and Leta , which propose a new approach to investigate scientific productivity.
The International Publication Ratio IPR was developed to allow for a distinction to be made between groups with different publication tendencies. Using the curriculum Lattes data bank, the authors gathered information about those within the Brazilian scientific community holding doctorate degrees, including their areas of knowledge, affiliations and publications. A total of The IPR data was linked to the researchers' areas of knowledge.
Leite, Mugnaini and Leta found evidence that international performance is a variable that is dependent on the field of knowledge. Areas dedicated to questions of international interest, such as Biology, Engineering, Exact and Earth Sciences, present a greater fraction of researchers with a high IPR. However, this is not the same for areas that are essentially devoted to questions of local and national interest.